Speaker Notes

Event: January 18, 2023 Meeting
Speakers: Will Covey, USPTO; Dahlia George, USPTO; Jennifer Fan, UW School of Law; Homer Hsu, Perkins Coie; and Tom Wong, Microsoft. Moderated by Julie Kane Akhter, Microsoft
Event Notes: Overview of USPTO Pro Bono Program, Ethical Duties and Promoting Inventor Diversity for Patent Practitioners
This presentation material is provided by Will Covey, Dahlia George, Jennifer Fan, Homer Hsu, Tom Wong, and Julie Kane Akhter a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: November 16, 2022 Meeting
Speaker: Professor Xuan-Thao Nguyen, University of Washington School of Law
Event Notes: Security Interest in Patents and Standing
This presentation material is provided by Professor Xuan-Thao Nguyen as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 21, 2022 Meeting
Speaker: Sarah Burstein, Suffolk University Law School
Event Notes: Design Patents 101: What IP Attorneys Need to Know
This presentation material is provided by Sarah Burstein as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: May 18, 2022 Meeting
Speakers: Christina McCullough, Andrew Dufresne, and Tara Kurtis; Perkins Coie.
Event Notes: Developments in Patent Law
This presentation material is provided by Christina McCullough, Andrew Dufresne, and Tara Kurtis as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: March 16, 2022 Meeting
Speakers: Keisaku Ishihara, Nagoya International Patent Firm; Hiroyasu Ninomiya, NYT Partners; and John Whitaker, Christensen O’Connor Johnson Kindness PLLC.
Event NotesPatent Invalidation Procedures and Practices: a Comparison between US and JP law
This presentation material is provided by Keisaku Ishihara, Hiroyasu Ninomiya, and John Whitaker as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: January 26, 2022 Meeting
Speakers: Tim Billick, TBillick Law PLLC; Isabella Fu, Microsoft Corporation; Brian McMahon, Christensen O’Connor Johnson Kindness PLLC; and James Barker, Bungie.
Event NotesThe status of willful infringement jurisprudence in the aftermath of SRI v Cisco
This presentation material is provided by Tim Billick, Isabella Fu, Brian McMahon, and James Barker as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: November 17, 2021 Meeting
Speaker: Professor David Hricik, Associate Dean, Mercer University School of Law
Event Notes: Ethics Potpourri + Additional Materials
This presentation material is provided by Professor David Hricik as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 15, 2021 Meeting
Speakers:
Greg Rosenthal, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP and Reinhard Knauer, Grünecker Patent Attorneys and Attorneys at Law
Event Notes:
Preparing Patent Applications for EP Examination and Litigation in Europe from the Perspective of a US Company or US Patent Attorney
This presentation material is provided by Greg Rosenthal and Reinhard Knauer as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: May 19, 2021 Meeting
Speaker:
Brian G. Bodine, Attorney at Law
Event Notes:
Developments in Patent Law
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: March 17, 2021 Virtual Meeting
Speaker: Sean M. O’Connor, Professor of Law
Event Notes: Bypassing Patents in the Pandemic? The Biden Administration Should Beware Revisionist Accounts of March-In Rights and Sec. 1498
This presentation material is provided by Professor Sean M. O’Connor as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: January 20, 2021 Virtual Meeting
Speaker: Mollybeth Kocialski, Regional Director of the Rocky Mountain Regional USPTO; Julie Kane Akhter, Senior Attorney, Microsoft; Beth Schubert, Ph.D. Patent Attorney, Aeon Law
Event Topic: Inventor Diversity: Issues and Approaches to Encourage Participation
Event Notes: Mollybeth Kocialski, Julie Kane Akhter, and Beth Schubert, Ph.D.
This presentation material is provided by Mollybeth Kocialski, Julie Kane Akhter, and Beth Schubert, Ph.D. as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: November 13, 2020 Virtual Meeting
Speaker: Professor David Hricik, Mercer University School of Law
Event Notes: The Ethical Issues Created by AI, IoT and 3D Printing on Patenting
This presentation material is provided by Professor David Hricik as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 16, 2020 Virtual Meeting
Speaker:
John D. Vandenberg, Klarquist Sparkman LLP
Event Notes:
Patent Carbon Royalty
This presentation material is provided by John D. Vandenberg as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: June 24, 2020 Virtual Meeting
Speakers: Ramsey M. Al-Salam, Perkins Coie and John Whitaker, Christensen O’Connor Johnson Kindness PLLC
Event Topic: The World According to 112
Event Notes: COJK Presentation S 112 FINAL, 2020-06-24 Recent-ish Developments in Indefiniteness, and 2020-06-24 WSPLA CLE – Functional Claiming in Litigation
This presentation material is provided by Ramsey M. Al-Salam and John Whitaker as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: January 22, 2020 Meeting
Speaker: Will Covey (Deputy General Counsel and Director of Office of Enrollment and Discipline OED at the United States Patent and Trademark Office) & Matt Martin (USPTO Pro Bono Team)
Event Notes: Professional Responsibility and Practice Before the US Patent and Trademark Office and the Patent Pro Bono Program
This presentation material is provided by Will Covey as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 18, 2019 Meeting
Speaker: Michael Stein, Baker & Hostetler LLP
Event Notes: Patent Drafting for Machine Learning: Structural Claim Limitations, Avoiding Sections 101 or 112 Rejections, Drafting for EPORecent Developments in Patent Law 2019
This presentation material is provided by Michael Stein as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: May 15, 2019 Meeting
Speaker: Brian G. Bodine, Lane Powell PC
Event Notes: Recent Developments in Patent Law 2019
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: March 20, 2019 Meeting
Speakers: Casey Fitzpatrick, Christensen O’Connor Johnson Kindness PLLC; Brooke Quist, Seed IP Law Group; Thomas Wong, Microsoft
Event Notes: Recent Development In Patent Eligibility
This presentation material is provided by Casey Fitzpatrick, Brooke Quist, and Thomas Wong as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: January 16, 2019 Meeting
Speakers: Mike Allen, Assistant General Counsel, Microsoft; David Rudin, Assistant General Counsel, Microsoft; John Whitaker, Of Counsel, Christensen O’Connor Johnson Kindness; Ann Woodliff, Attorney at Law; Thomas Wong, Assistant General Counsel, Microsoft (Panel Moderator)
Event Notes: Patent Issues on Open Source Software and Standards Organizations
This presentation material is provided by Mike Allen, David Rudin, John Whitaker, and Ann Woodliff as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: November 14, 2018 Meeting
Speaker: Dahlia George, OED staff attorney
Event Notes: USPTO Presentation on Ethics & Pro Bono
This presentation material is provided by Dahlia George as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 19, 2018 Meeting
Speaker: John D. Vandenberg, Klarquist Sparkman, LLP
Event NotesDrafting (and Invalidating) Patent Claims as a Sec. 112 Master: How Claims, Hollow Claims, Ways and Means
This presentation material is provided by John D. Vandenberg as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: May 16, 2018 Annual Meeting & CLE
Speakers: Brian G. Bodine, Lane Powell PC and Nika Aldrich, Schwabe Williamson & Wyatt
Event NotesPatent Case Law Year-In-Review, Recent Decisions from the Federal Circuit and Supreme Court
This presentation material is provided by Brian Bodine and Nika Aldrich as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: March 21, 2018 Meeting
Speaker: Lisa K. Jorgenson, Executive Director, American Intellectual Property Law Association
Event Notes: Current Topics in Patent Law from the AIPLA Perspective
This presentation material is provided by Lisa K. Jorgenson as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: November 15, 2017 Meeting
Speaker: Randall R. Rader, The Rader Group
Event NotesIs IP leadership shifting to Asia?
This presentation material is provided by Randall R. Rader as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: September 20, 2017 Meeting
Speaker: The Honorable James L. Robart
Event Notes: Current Approaches To RAND and FRAND – Reflecting, It’s A Wide, Wide World
This presentation material is provided by The Honorable James L. Robart as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: May 17, 2017 Annual Meeting & CLE
Speakers: Brian G. Bodine, Lane Powell PC and Peter E. Heuser, Schwabe Williamson & Wyatt
Event NotesPatent Case Law Year-In-Review, Recent Decisions from the Federal Circuit and Supreme Court
This presentation material is provided by Brian Bodine and Peter Heuser as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: March 15, 2017 Meeting
Speakers: Jay Sha, Takuya Izumi, Leonard L. Werner-Jones, David Sproston, and Shoko Leek
Event Notes: Dos and Don’ts of US Inbound & Outbound Applications
This presentation material is provided by Jay Sha, Takuya Izumi, Leonard L. Werner-Jones, David Sproston, and Shoko Leek as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

 

Event: February 7, 2017
Event Notes: Discover IP Japan Conference 2017
This presentation material is provided by the presenters at the Discover IP Japan Conference 2017 as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Presentation 1_Preary Session

Presentation 2A_Session 1

Presentation 2B_Session 1

Presentation 3A Session 2

Presentation 3B Session 2

Presentation 4 Session 3

Presentation 5 Session 4

Event: November 16, 2016 Meeting
Speaker: Paul Stewart, Partner, Knobbe Martens Intellectual Property Law
Event Notes: Representing Clients in Related Technology: Ethical Conflicts in Patent Prosecution
This presentation material is provided by Paul Stewart as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: September 14, 2016 Meeting
Speaker: David Gauntlett of Gauntlett & Associates, Irvine California
Event Notes: Obtaining Insurance Coverage for Your Patent Infringement and Related IP Claims;
Appendix – Insurance Coverage for Patent Infringement Lawsuits
This presentation material is provided by David Gauntlett as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: June 9, 2016 Meeting
Speaker: Hitoshi ITO, Commissioner of the Japan Patent Office
Event Notes: Updates of JPO Initiatives
This presentation material is provided by the Japan Patent Office as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 18, 2016 Meeting
Speakers: Brian G. Bodine, Lane Powell PC and Peter E. Heuser, Schwabe Williamson & Wyatt
Event Notes: Patent Case Law Year-In-Review, Recent Decisions from the Federal Circuit and Supreme Court
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine and Peter E. Heuser as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 16, 2016 Meeting
Speaker: Jerry A. Riedinger, Partner, Perkins Coie
Event Notes: The Changing World of Patent Litigation: Past, Present and Future
This presentation material is provided by Jerry A. Riedinger as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: January 20, 2016 Meeting
Speaker: Stephen Korniczky, Partner, Sheppard Mullin
Event Notes: Ethics for Patent Practitioners
This presentation material is provided by Stephen Korniczky as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 18, 2015 Meeting
Speaker: John D. Vandenberg, Klarquist Sparkman, LLP
Event Notes: Tips For U.S. Patent Prosecution and Litigation
This presentation material is provided by John D. Vandenberg as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: September 16, 2015 Meeting
Speaker: Christopher V. Carani, McAndrews, Held & Malloy, Ltd.
Event Notes: Design Rights
This presentation material is provided by Christopher V. Carani as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 20, 2015 Meeting
Speaker: Brian G. Bodine, Lane Powell PC
Event Notes: Patent Case Law Year-In-Review, Recent Decisions from the Federal Circuit and Supreme Court
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 18, 2015 Meeting
Speaker: Jennifer K. Johnson
Event Notes: The Myriad Ways 35 U.S.C. 101 Has Been Obscured for Biotech
This presentation material is provided by Jennifer K. Johnson as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: January 28, 2015 Meeting
Speakers: Mike Allen, Microsoft Corporation; Bill Harmon, Shook Hardy & Bacon; Danielle Johnston Holmes, Microsoft; Thomas Wong, Microsoft
Event Notes: Recent Developments in Patent Law: Divided Infringement and Inducement
This presentation material is provided by Mike Allen, Bill Harmon, Danielle Johnston Holmes, and Thomas Wong as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 19, 2014 Meeting
Speaker: John Cabeca, Director of the Silicon Valley USPTO
Event Notes: Recent developments with the Silicon Valley office and the latest in USPTO rules and procedures
This presentation material is provided by John Cabeca as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: September 17, 2014 Meeting
Panel: Maria Anderson, Paul Leblond, Larry Lycke, and Bart Eppenauer
Event Notes: Panel Discussion of the Supreme Court Decision in Alice v. CLS Bank
This presentation material is provided by Maria Anderson, Paul Leblond, Larry Lycke, and Bart Eppenauer as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 21, 2014 Meeting
Speaker: Peter Kim
Event Notes: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Patent Strategy, Inspired by Principles of Sun-Tzu: Integrating Court Cases, Best Practices, and The Art of War
This presentation material is provided by Peter Kim as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 19, 2014 Meeting
Speaker: Brian G. Bodine
Event Notes: Patent Case Law Year-In-Review, Recent Decisions from the Federal Circuit and Supreme Court
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: January 15, 2014 Meeting
Speakers: Jim Banowsky, Sonia Cooper, Steve Spellman, and Tom Wong
Event Notes: Considerations and Strategies On Drafting Patent Applications For Both US And EP Jurisdictions
This presentation material is provided by Jim Banowsky, Sonia Cooper, Steve Spellman, and Tom Wong as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 22, 2013 Meeting
Speaker: Sean M. O’Connor, Professor of Law, School of Law, University of Washington
Event Notes: Patent Exhaustion and New Business Models: Sales, Servitudes, and Services
This presentation material is provided by Sean M. O’Connor as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: July 12, 2013 Meeting
Speaker: The Honorable James L. Robart
Event Notes: Updates in Determining RAND for Standards Essential Patents
This presentation material is provided by James L. Robart as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 15, 2013 Meeting
Speakers: Gregg Choe, Douglas Grady, Dylan Hargreaves, and Byron Springer
Event Notes: High Tech Patent Transaction Marketplace
This presentation material is provided by Gregg Choe, Douglas Grady, Dylan Hargreaves, and Byron Springer as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: January 15, 2013 Meeting
Speakers: Aaron Chatterjee, Henry Gabryjelski, Steven Spellman, Tom Wong
Event Notes: Issues and Strategies for the New First-to-File Patent Statutes and Rules Under the America Invents Act.
This presentation material is provided by Aaron Chatterjee, Henry Gabryjelski, Steven Spellman, and Tom Wong as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: December 12, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: Chris Frerking
Event Notes: Drafting U.S. patent applications with later European filing in mind.
This presentation material is provided by Chris Frerking as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: September 19, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: Joseph Re
Event Notes: Patent Prosecution Through the Eyes of a Patent Litigator
This presentation material is provided by Joseph Re as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 30, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: Michael Tierney, USPTO
Event Notes: Contested Proceedings Before the New Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB)
This presentation material is provided by Michael Tierney as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event : April 25, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: David Hricik
Event NotesEthics in Today’s Patent Practice for Washington Practitioners
This presentation material is provided by David Hricik as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 21, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: John F. Murphy
Event Notes: CAFC year in Review
This presentation material is provided by John F. Murphy as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: February 29, 2012 Meeting
Speaker: Stephen Kunin
Event Notes: Strategies for patent practice under the Leahy-Smith AIA
This presentation material is provided by Stephen Kunin as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 16, 2011 Meeting
Speaker: Robert Stoll, Commissioner for Patents, USPTO
Event Notes: USPTO Update with Commissioner Stoll
This presentation material is provided by Robert Stoll as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: June 15, 2011 Meeting
Speaker: Andrew Pratt
Event Notes: Understanding ITC Litigation
This presentation material is provided by Andrew Pratt as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 18, 2011 Meeting
Speaker: Sean O’Connor
Event NotesWaiting for Therasense . . . updates on inequitable conduct
This presentation material is provided by Sean O’Connor as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: January 19, 2011 Meeting
Speaker: Robert Stoll, Commissioner for Patents, USPTO
Event Notes: USPTO Update with Commissioner Stoll
This presentation material is provided by Robert Stoll as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 18, 2010 Meeting
Speaker: Christopher Holman, J.D., Ph.D
Event Notes: Impact of Bilski on Biotechnology
This presentation material is provided by Christopher Holman as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: September 15, 2010 Meeting
Speaker: Brian G. Bodine
Event Notes: What’s New: Federal Circuit Court Review
This presentation material is provided by Brian G. Bodine as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: June 16, 2010 Meeting
Speaker: Jeff Hawley
Event Notes: Your Evolving Ethical Obligations – Therasense and Avid
This presentation material is provided by Jeff Hawley as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: May 26, 2010 Meeting
Speaker: Matt Rainey
Event Notes: Patent Law Reform
This presentation material is provided by Matt Rainey as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 17, 2010 Meeting
Speaker: William F. Smith
Event Notes: Tips for Success Before the BPAI
This presentation material is provided by William F. Smith as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: November 18, 2009 Meeting
Speaker: Anthony K. Greene
Event Notes: Intersection of Ethics and Professional Liability Issues in Intellectual Property Firms &/or IP Lawyers in Other Firms
This presentation material is provided by Anthony K. Greene as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event:  September 16, 2009 Meeting
Speaker:  Stephen G. Kunin
Event Notes:  Reexamination/Reissue Practice Group
This presentation material is provided by Steven G. Kunin as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 25, 2009 Meeting
Speaker: David Yurkerwich
Event Notes: Patent Damages and Valuations
This presentation material is provided by David Yurkerwich  as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.

Event: March 21, 2007 Meeting
Speaker: Professor Joe Miller
Event Notes: Putting the Law (Back) in Patent Law
This presentation material is provided by Joe Miller as a courtesy to the WSPLA members. The use of the slides and any information contained therein by the recipient does not constitute legal advice.